机械专业英语自学教程 Lesson 18 Internal Combustion Engine 内燃机

发布日期:[10-12-27 22:03:37] 浏览人次:[]

Lesson 18

Internal Combustion Engine

词汇讲解

课文分析

练习答案

本课教学目标:

掌握内燃机的分类方法;

掌握与内燃机相关的专业词汇;

翻译技巧:信*达*雅

Section Ⅰ: words and phases

See if you can pronounce these words rightly:

exothermic [9eksEJ`W\:mIk] adj. [化]发热的

petroleum [pi5trEuliEm] n. 石油

turbocharge [`t\:bEJtFB:dV] vt. 用涡轮给(发动机)增压

Pay close attention to the words concerning an internal combustion engine

piston

rotor

connecting rod

cylinder

Now please remember the new words and phrases as fast as you can.

Section Ⅱ: text

At first, read the first paragraph silently in 3 minutes, please.

paragraph Ⅰ:

The internal combustion engine is a heat engine in which the burning of a fuel occurs in a confined space called a combustion chamber. This exothermic reaction of a fuel with an oxidizer creates gases of high temperature and pressure, which are permitted to expand. The defining feature of an internal combustion engine is that useful work is performed by the expanding hot gases acting directly to cause movement, for example by acting on pistons, rotors, or even by pressing on and moving the entire engine itself.

内燃机是一种热机,燃料在其被称为燃烧室的密封空间内燃烧。燃料和氧化剂间的放热反应产生可膨胀的高温高压气体。内燃机的显著特点是能做有用功,即膨胀的受热气体直接作用在物体上并使其运动,如活塞、转子,乃至整个内燃机本身。

Oral English practice :

What’s an internal combustion engine?

Say what’s you know about an internal combustion engine as much as you can.

Read the second paragraph silently  in two minutes, please.

paragraph Ⅱ:

Car engines vary in design, but certain elements are common to all engines and are used for engine classification. Engines can be classified in several ways such as the number of cylinders, the geometry of the block, or type of ignition system used. The two major engine types in use are spark ignition (gasoline engine) and compression ignition (diesel engine) which use different types of fuel. The following are ways engines are classified.

汽车内燃机因设计的不同而不同,但某些元件是所有内燃机所共有的,并用作内燃机的分类依据。内燃机可按气缸的数目、气缸的排列方式和点火系统的类型等方式分类。常用的两大类内燃机是火花点火式(汽油机)和压缩点火式(柴油机)内燃机,他们使用不同种类的燃料。下面是内燃机的分类方法。

Oral English practice :

In how many ways can engines be classified? And what are they?

Flip through the third paragraph in two minutes, please.

paragraph Ⅲ:

Fuel Burned:

Fuel burned provides a broad engine classification. Two types of fuel are in general use: gasoline and diesel oil. Gasoline car engines use spark ignition whereas diesel engines use compression ignition (no spark.) Alternate fuels such as liquefied petroleum gas (LP-gas), gasohol (90% gasoline, 10% alcohol), and pure alcohol are used in very limited situations.

按所用燃料分类是使用的较为广泛的一种分类方法。汽油和柴油是使用的最为广泛的两种燃料。汽油机采用火花点火而柴油机采用压缩点火(无火花)

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