中英文对照机械专业英语文章

发布日期:[10-12-26 11:51:49] 浏览人次:[]

脆性可以降低到使用条件所需要的程度。

As these properties are reduced there is also a decrease in tensile strength and an increase in the ductility and toughness of the steel. The operation consists of reheating quench-hardened steel to some temperature below the critical range followed by any rate of cooling.

随着这些性能的降低,拉伸强度也降低而钢的延展性和韧性则会提高。回火作业包括将淬硬钢重新加热到低于临界范围的某一温度然后以任意速率冷却。

Although this process softens steel, it differs considerably from annealing in that the process lends itself to close control of the physical properties and in most cases does not soften the steel to the extent that annealing would. The final structure obtained from tempering a fully hardened steel is called tempered martensite.

虽然这过程使钢软化,但它与退火是大不相同的,因为回火适合于严格控制物理性能并在大多数情况下不会把钢软化到退火那种程度。回火完全淬硬钢得到的最终组织结构被称为回火马氏体。

Tempering is possible because of the instability of the martensite, the principal constituent of hardened steel. Low-temperature draws, from 300℉ to 400℉ (150℃~205℃), do not cause much decrease in hardness and are used principally to relieve internal strains.

由于马氏体这一淬硬钢主要成分的不稳定性,使得回火成为可能。低温回火, 300℉到400℉(150℃~205℃),不会引起硬度下降很多,主要用于减少内部应变。

As the tempering temperatures are increased, the breakdown of the martensite takes place at a faster rate, and at about 600℉(315℃) the change to a structure called tempered martensite is very rapid. The tempering operation may be described as one of precipitation and agglomeration or coalescence of  cementite.

随着回火温度的提高,马氏体以较快的速率分解,并在大约600℉(315℃)迅速转变为被称为回火马氏体的结构。回火作业可以描述为渗碳体析出和凝聚或聚结的过程。

A substantial precipitation of cementite begins at 600℉(315℃), which produces a decrease in hardness. Increasing the temperature causes coalescence of the carbides with continued decrease in hardness.

渗碳体的大量析出开始于600℉(315℃),这使硬度下降。温度的上升会使碳化物聚结而硬度继续降低。

In the process of tempering, some consideration should be given to time as well as to temperature. Although most of the softening action occurs in the first few minutes after the temperature is reached, there is some additional reduction in hardness if the temperature is maintained for a prolonged time.

在回火过程中,不但要考虑温度而且要考虑时间。虽然大多数软化作用发生在达到所需温度后的最初几分钟,但如果此温度维持一段延长时间,仍会有些额外的硬度下降。

Usual practice is to heat the steel to the desired temperature and hold it there only long enough to have it uniformly heated.

通常的做法是将钢加热到所需温度并且仅保温到正好使其均匀受热。

Two special processes using interrupted quenching are a form of tempering. In both, the hardened steel is quenched in a salt bath held at a selected lower temperature before being allowed to cool. These processes, known as austemp

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